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    發布時間:2023-03-13 14:38:44 | 來源:中國藏學研究中心 | 作者:秘書處 | 責任編輯:




    NGO Report of the China Association for Preservation & Development of Tibetan Culture

    Submitted to the United Nations Economic and Social Council for Universal Periodic Review

    January 2023

    1.China Association for Preservation & Development of Tibetan Culture is very concerned about the universal periodic review of the third report on the Chinese action to fulfil its commitments made by United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNCESCR). We have noted the considerable efforts the Chinese government has made for the use and development of the Tibetan spoken and written language, protection of eco-environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, inheritance of the best of traditional Tibetan culture, and protection of the freedom of religious belief, etc. We have also discovered some issues that need to be addressed. We will present our ideas and give our advice in these four aspects.

    2.The Chinese government attaches great importance to the use and development of the Tibetan spoken and written language, and respects and protects the right to use ethnic spoken and written language.

    3.Legislative protection. Article 4 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China provides that“all ethnic groups shall have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages”. It is stipulated in Article 10 of the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy of the People’s Republic of China that“the organs of self-government national autonomous areas shall guarantee the freedom of the nationalities in these areas to use and develop their own spoken and written languages”. As early as July 1987, the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region promulgated the Provisions of the Teaching, Use and Development of the Tibetan Language in the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region. One article designates the Tibetan language as“the common language in the region”. Article 3 provides that“the Tibetan language and the standard spoken and written Chinese language are equally authoritative”. Other ethnic autonomous regions also introduced rules to protect the Tibetan language. For example, in September 2018, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture issued the Regulations on the Tibetan Spoken and Written Language. Article 4 states that“the prefecture promotes the development of the Tibetan spoken and written language by combining protection with inheritance, and popularisation with improvement, in order to give the language full play in economic, political, cultural, social and ecological progress”.

    4.Wide application. Since the founding of the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region in 1965, the resolutions and regulations adopted by its people’s congress, and the official documents and announcements by governments at various levels and government departments have all been issued in Chinese and Tibetan. The two languages are also used in all the large meetings and major activities organized by local governments, enterprises and public institutions. Judicial organs stipulate that in judicial proceedings, the Tibetan language is used to hear cases and make legal documents in accordance with the needs of Tibetan litigants, so as to guarantee the right of Tibetan citizens to use the language for litigation. Tibet now has 16 periodicals and 12 newspapers in the Tibetan language, and has published more than 40 million copies of 7,185 Tibetan-language books. An increasing number of radio and television stations, such as the Tibetan-language channel in Xizang (Tibet), the Amdo Tibetan channel in Qinghai and the Kangba Tibetan channel in Sichuan continue to produce quality Tibetan programs. The language is widely used in health, postal services, communications, transport, finance, and science and technology.

    5.Inheritance and development. At the end of 2015, the national standard Information Technology – Vocabulary in Tibetan was officially released, which marked the birth of China’s first national standard vocabulary for information technology in the Tibetan language. In 2018, the National Working Committee for the Standardization of Tibetan Terminology issued the New Tibetan Terms, which contributes nearly 1,500 new terms to the Tibetan language. In 2020 and 2021, the Chinese government held the Review Meeting of Translation Experts on the New Tibetan Terms twice to promote the proper teaching and use of the Tibetan spoken and written language. We notice that the increasing standardisation and application in information technology have infused new life into this old language.

    6.Mutual learning. We also find that many Tibetans voluntarily study and use the standard spoken and written Chinese language for business and employment in other provinces, prefectures and cities to increase income and improve living standards. Meanwhile, grassroots civil servants working on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and people in other provinces also take pains to learn and use Tibetan for better service and more effective communication with the Tibetan compatriots. It has been a common practice that different ethnic groups learn spoken and written languages from each other. More and more people are becoming bilingual or multilingual.

    7.Flexible approach. For decades, the Chinese government has used both standard Chinese and the Tibetan language for education in elementary school, junior middle school and senior middle school in Tibet and other Tibetan areas. The Tibetan language is included in the entrance examination curriculum. In this sense, the Chinese practice is superior to many other countries. Tibet is a large yet sparsely populated region, and transport is inconvenient. In consideration of this, the Chinese government encourages the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region to build boarding schools in in towns and townships to help children in remote farming and pastoral areas to attend school and staff these schools with sufficient Tibetan language teachers. The educational department has set up Tibetan language majors in normal universities such as Qinghai Normal University as well as non-normal universities including Minzu University of China and Xizang University, many graduates of which have become teachers.

    8.By putting the environment first and pursuing green development, the Chinese government has made spectacular achievements in the eco-environmental protection of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    9.Construction of a legal system in the ecological protection of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region has promulgated and implemented over 30 local rules and regulations including the Regulations on Environmental Protection and the Regulations on Wetland Conservation. The region formulated the Plan for Developing Ecological Highlands in the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region (2021-2035) and improved the policy implementation system for developing ecological highlands. In September 2022, the 36th Session of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress deliberated the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Ecological Protection of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (draft), a law dedicated to the eco-protection of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and published it to solicit the public’s opinions. The draft established the principles of“respecting nature, following nature’s law, and protecting nature”,“prioritisation of eco-environmental protection” and holding a first line of defense for ecological safety, making ecological protection an important guarantee and rigid restraint of regional development.

    10.Effective eco-environment protection of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region has set up 47 nature reserves of all kinds, which account for 38.75 percent of the total area of the autonomous region. The area of the ecological protection zones reached 608,000 square kilometres, 49.49 percent of the total area of the region. The forest area stands at 14.91 million hectares, and its forest coverage has reached 12.31 percent, with over 9,600 recorded wild plants. Xizang (Tibet) has become one of the regions with the best eco-environment in the world. In May 2022, researchers of the Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered“the tallest tree in the world” in Chayu County of Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region, a fir measuring 83.2 meters tall. The researchers attributed its growth to“optimum climatic and topographic conditions and minimum human activity”.

    11.Over the past five years, Qinghai Province increased over 18 million mu of forested land. The water area of the Qinghai Lake is 4,625.6 square kilometres, which is 220 square kilometres larger than a decade ago. The increase is 34 times the area of the West Lake in Hangzhou. The Chinese government has invested more than 30 billion yuan to conserve and restore the ecosystems of Sanjiangyuan (the source of three rivers), with the participation of 17,200 local herdsmen. According to the third-party independent review of the Paulson Institute of the United States, the trial run of Three-River-Source National Park constitutes a significant measure by which China uses to fulfil the goal of building the national park system in 2030. In November 2022, at the 14th Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on Wetlands, the Chinese government announced the incorporation of wetland national parks like Three-River-Source National Park and Qinghai Lake National Park into the nation’s park system. Following a series of measures and actions, the eco-environment of the Three-River-Source National Park steadily improves. The vegetation coverage rate of grasslands has reached 67.31 per cent. Biodiversity has been restored to a satisfactory extent, with the population of Tibetan antelopes growing from 20,000 in the beginning of the protection to around 70,000.

    12.The Chinese government blends inheritance and protection with innovation, and fine traditional Tibetan culture continues to be revived.

    13.Brilliant record in cultural heritage protection. In 2021, the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region issued the Regulations on the Protection of Cultural Relics and the Interim Rules on the Management of Monastic Heritage, among other regulative documents. From 2006 to 2020, the Chinese government has spent over 3.4 billion yuan on the renovation of 155 cultural relics in Xizang (Tibet). At the end of 2018, the Chinese government launched a 10-year project to protect and utilize cultural relics of the Potala Palace – mainly ancient books and documents – at an investment of 300 million yuan. So far, Xizang (Tibet) boasts three world cultural heritage sites, namely Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka, more than 70 key cultural heritage sites under the protection of the state, and three state-level historic and cultural sites, i.e., Lhasa, Shigatse and Gyantse.

    14.Fast progress in the inheritance and development of Tibetan medicine. The Chinese government supports the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region in the training of professionals of Tibetan medicine. In 2018, Xizang (Tibet) Traditional Medical College was elevated to the University of Tibetan Medicine. Since its founding, the school has produced over 7,000 professionals. According to a preliminary estimate, there are 44 public Tibetan medical institutions in Xizang (Tibet), with an average of 6 institutions in each prefecture or city. About 94.4 percent of township health centres and 42.4 percent of village health clinics provide Tibetan medicine services. Industrial production of Tibetan medicine has been scaled up and standardized, and a basic Tibetan medicine industry chain has taken shape. Seventeen Tibetan medicine manufacturers in Tibet have passed GMP certification, and 311 Tibetan drugs have been approved by the state. Over the years, Xizang (Tibet) has compiled and published more than 300 ancient books on Tibetan medicine. The digitalisation of ancient books and materials on Tibetan medicine, as well as the construction of the world’s largest information centre of ancient books and documents on Tibetan medicine, astronomy and calendars, are also under way. All of these undertakings are of profound importance in the protection and inheritance of Tibetan medicine.

    15.A milestone in the construction of professional protection institutions. The Xizang (Tibet) Intangible Cultural Heritage Museum and the Yak Museum were lately established in Lhasa; five official museums and the Valley of the Kings (Tibet) were created in Shigatse, Shannan, Nyingchi, Nagqu and Ngari, etc. The formation of a network of Tibetan museums, with the Xizang (Tibet) Museum at the centre and joined by the Treasure Gallery of the Potala Palace, various original state exhibitions, the Gendün Ch?phel Memorial as well as municipal and prefectural museums, marks a milestone in the inheritance, preservation and development of fine traditional ethnic cultures. In terms of the development of local museums alone, it is safe to say that traditional Tibetan culture is far from extinct. With protection and inheritance activities burgeoning, brighter prospects are beckoning.

    16.The Chinese government respects and protects the freedom of religious belief, and takes actions to build harmonious and healthy religious relationships.

    17.Law-based administration of religious affairs. We notice that pursuant to the central government’s requirements, the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region upholds that all religions and sects are equal, as are all believers and non-believers. To ensure the freedom of religious belief and the normal order and legally administrate religious affairs, the region has formulated a series of regulatory systems, policies and measures including the Measures of the Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region on Implementing the Regulations on Religious Affairs (trial).

    18.Identification of Living Buddha reincarnation in an orderly manner. In 1992, the 17th Living Buddha Karmapa was enthroned at the Tsurphu Monastery, Lhasa. In 1995, the search for and identification of the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama was carried out through drawing lots from a golden urn. The 11th Panchen Lama’s enthronement was held at the Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, Shigatse. In 2010, the Sixth Living Buddha Dezhub was nominated and enthroned through the drawing of lots from a golden urn at the Trakor Monastery, Shannan. So far, more than 90 incarnated Living Buddhas have been confirmed through traditional religious rituals and historical conventions.

    19.Organization of regular traditional religious activities. Traditional religious activities such as studying scriptures and debate, initiation as a monk or nun, abhisheka (an empowerment ceremony), and self-cultivation are carried out regularly. Examination on scriptures and subsequent promotion in academic degrees are also held in monasteries on a regular basis. The traditional Saga Dawa Festival was made a public holiday by the state to facilitate people’s celebration of the festival. In addition, a great number of religious believers participate in the Monlam Prayer Festival in major monasteries in Lhasa during the first month of the Tibetan calendar, as well as the Bonpo practices of touring Gangdise Mountains in the Year of the Horse, touring Zarisarba in the Year of the Monkey and touring Lake Namtso in the Year of the Sheep. In 2014, around 300,000 people joined the Tour of Gangdise Mountains.

    20.Expansion of channels for scripture study. The High-level Tibetan Buddhism of China, founded by the 10th Panchen Lama, has produced 273 holders of“mtho rab pa”, the highest Tibetan Buddhist academic rank, with 10 classes and 90 teachers covering six Tibetan Buddhist sects across Tibet and all the major monasteries in four provinces with Tibetan inhabitants. The Tibetan Buddhist Institute and its 10 branches now have more than 3,000 monks and nuns who are studying the sutras. The Tibetan Buddhist Institute of Sichuan Province has built branches in Ganzi and Aba prefectures. Jamyang Rinpoche, dean of the High-level Tibetan Buddhism of China commented:“Previously, monks and nuns could only study the scriptures at monasteries. Nowadays, as Buddhist colleges flourish all over the Tibetan areas, monks and nuns are provided with more choices and channels, and communication between sects has increased.”

    21.Some problems and tentative solutions. In recent years, there have been some lawless elements who pretend to be Tibetan Buddhist“Living Buddhas”,“Kampus” and“Gurus” for illegal missionary activities and profiteering, which has posed a serious threat to the believers’ interests and the image of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, the so-called“qigong master” Wang Xingfu, who passed himself off as“Living Buddha Lobsang Tenzin” and raked in close to 200 million yuan, was punished in accordance with the law by Chinese judicial organs in 2022. We suggest that the Chinese government and relevant government departments take sterner measures against these illegal activities to maintain the order of Tibetan Buddhism.

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